Postgraduate study and specialized scientific councils.
Fellowship (Latin Aspirans are those who are trying to achieve something). Nowadays post-graduation is the main form of scientific and pedagogical staff in Ukraine.
Postgraduate is opened in universities and research establishments with corresponding experimental basis and qualified scientific staff (doctors).
Postgraduate study is conducted at a distance (full-time, correspondence form) and, on public order and the contract (paid tuition).
During training young scientists must master the methods of scientific research to pass candidate examinations in philosophy, foreign language (by choice) and PhD thesis according to specialty. At the end of training course post graduator must submit a dissertation in a specialized academic council in thesis defense. graduates enrolled in the post graduate education or discontinued by government order receive government scholarship.
In Ukraine there are two scientific degrees candidate of sciences and doctor of sciences.
In Europe and in most countries the highest academic degree is a Ph.D. (sometimes: PhD or DPhil). This degree is awarded by universities after the exam and thesis defense. Degree Ph.D is roughly equivalent to PhD.
The degree of qualification of applicant is doctoral dissertation.
Despite the title degree has no practical relation to philosophy than history. Its researchers worked at all scientific fields: Ph.D. in literature or Ph.D. in physics, PhD in medicine. According to the tradition established back in the medieval universities the standard structure which usually obligatory included faculties of philosophy, law, theology and medicine.
Currently process harmonization of educational systems as part of the Bologna, possibility of maintaining the current two-tier system (Masters / Doctorate), and the transition to a single-stage model.